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Thesis research on Planning for Urban Schools

Jeff Carson - Thursday, August 17, 2017

During online research of active shooters, terrorist attacks and hostage situations in schools, a Thesis paper from the Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, California was located. The subject title was “Thesis on Homeland Security Planning for Urban Area Schools”, authored by Craig A. Gjelsten with a publication date of March 2008. Below are some of the pulled quotes that I found enlightening or interesting. ..

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FEMA’s Pre-Disaster Mitigation (PDM) Grants

Jeff Carson - Wednesday, August 02, 2017

The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) has the PDM Program to help communities to prepare for various disaster events to include Active Shooter events. Below are some more pulled quotes from a FEMA brochure to assist in the understanding of the PDM Grant program and their insights into addressing Pre-Disaster Mitigation plans/efforts. ..

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Lesson Learned to save our Students and Teachers from an Active Shooter event

Jeff Carson - Tuesday, July 18, 2017

There is a very strong example of how to save and protect both students and teachers in the school environment from a possibly deadly threat. This example has worked so good that not a single student has been killed in the United States in over 50 years from this particular event. Fire prevention, fire safety and fire drills have ensured that no student has died in over 50 years. I heard another source stated the last student to die in a school fire was in 1958 but I cannot verify that. ..

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Emergency Egress Door

Jeff Carson - Wednesday, July 05, 2017

The development of an emergency egress door is rather straight forward and simple. FEMA P-361 does not require the emergency egress door but leaves it up to the local authorities/ decision makers. However, if such an egress door is required, a minimum size is required.  ..

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Two Hour Standby Power Back-up for Tornado and Active Shooter events

Jeff Carson - Wednesday, June 21, 2017

The FEMA guidelines for Tornado protection are numerated in FEMA P-361, Design and Construction Guidance for Community Safe Rooms, Second Edition, August 2008. Paragraph 8.10, entitled Standby Power on page 8-12 states: “The ICC-500 standard requires standby power systems to be designed to provide the required output capacity for a minimum of 2 hours and to support the mechanical ventilation system, when applicable.”

Another US government agency, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in their Natural Disasters and Severe Weather – Tornado section stated: “Injury may result from the direct impact of a tornado, or it may occur afterward when people walk among debris and enter damaged buildings. A study of injuries after a tornado in Marion, Illinois, showed that 50 percent of the tornado-related injuries were suffered during rescue attempts, cleanup, and other post-tornado activities. Nearly a third of the injuries resulted from stepping on nails. Other common causes of injury included falling objects and heavy, rolling objects. Because tornadoes often damage power lines, gas lines, or electrical systems, there is a risk of fire, electrocution, or an explosion. Protecting yourself and your family requires promptly treating any injuries suffered during the storm and using extreme care to avoid further hazards.”

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Lessons Learned from Terrorist Attacks on Schools

Jeff Carson - Wednesday, May 31, 2017

A couple of years ago I heard that an terrorist attack on the Belsan School in Russia on 1 September 2004 was a “dress rehearsal” for terrorist attacks on American schools. I started searching for the quote and found a book review (SOURCE) by Frank Borelli about a book entitled “Terror at Belsan: A Russian Tragedy with Lessons for America's Schools ” written by John Giduck, published in 2005. The short version is the terrorists held the school for 3 days and Russian military attacked, resulting in a death toll of 385 (186 children, parents, 35 terrorists and 11 Special Ops soldiers). I bought the book, read it and have a few observations about the book’s predictions in light of the recent attack in Manchester, England on 22 May 2017.  ..

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School Resource Officers (SROs)

Jeff Carson - Tuesday, May 30, 2017

The most common solution to Active Shooter event is to place a School Resource Officer (SRO) in every school. Most schools in the United States do not have SROs in every school and some schools share a single SRO. Each jurisdiction addresses this matter and eventually the discussion turns to continuing costs. ..

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True Threat Assessment

Jeff Carson - Monday, May 15, 2017

Question:  ..

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Why Bullet Resistant Fiberglass Panels?

Jeff Carson - Wednesday, March 29, 2017

The ballistic protection requirements are identified in:  Safe Rooms and Shelters, Protecting People Against Terrorist Attacks, FEMA 453, dated May 2006.  On page 2-19 of this FEMA publication, Underwriters Laboratory (UL)  Level 8 is identified as the highest ballistic protection category.  A separate threat analysis for Active Shooter events also identifies Level 8 at the high end of protection required.  The typical firearm “preferred” in Active Shooter events are semi-automatic rifle with rapid exchange of 20- to 30-round magazines.  The AK-47, AR-15 and now the AR-10 all meet this preference.  The AR-10 is the .308 which is the more powerful rifle of these three. So protection from the .308 ball round is needed and that is UL Level 8. ..

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